sacred Egyptian, Greek mythological,
Roman connected with games, &c.
have grouped together all the
animals, as it is not always
possible to separate them into
their classes. The most important
are clearly the Egyptian sacred
animals, such as the Hawk; next
in order come those which have
a mythological reference to Greek
divinities, as the Panther to
Dionysos; and, lastly, those
which occur also on Roman coins,
and are connected with the public
games. To these may be added
the legionary Aquila. All that
is necessary here is to notice
the more difficult types in alphabetical
cultus of the Bull Apis, which
must have been introduced from
Memphis, its ancient seat, was
of course sacred to Sarapis,
whose name, as has been noticed
(p. lx.), was derived from that
of the defunct and deified Apis
He is represented with the disk
of the moon between his horns,
and before him an altar of Egyptian
xxv. 812). The disk is sometimes
wanting (1175 not engr.).
Crocodile was no doubt sacred
to Harpokrates of Kanopos, whose
peculiar form as a youth with
a crocodile's body, represented
on the coins of Alexandria and
the Menelaite Nome, has already
been noticed (p.
Of course the crocodile was primarily
sacred to the crocodile-headed
Sebak of Kanopos, but the link
with Alexandria needed to account
for the crocodile on the coins
is no doubt Harpokrates. The
animal has the solar disk on
his head, which would agree with
the solar divinity Harpokrates
Roman Aquila, Consecratio.
is important to discriminate
the use of the Eagle, first in
the Ptolemaic fashion as the
bird of Zeus, when he frequently
stands on the thunderbolt or
has a palm across him (Pl.
xxv. 1, 166), and then as
the Roman legionary Aquila. Ultimately
the meaning, when the Eagle carries
a wreath, or has the palm across
him, is always military. (Pl.
xxv.) The eagle also occurs
in the Consecratio, αΦιερωσις type.
Hawk, crowned with the Egyptian
skhent, the crown of Upper and
Lower Egypt (xxv.
275), is in the native mythology
sacred to the solar gods, such
as Ra and Horus. He is therefore
at Alexandria connected with
Harpokrates, a form of Horus.
Hippopotamus appears on the coins
of the District of the Alexandrians
as held on the extended right hand
of the district divinity, possibly
Alexander (see p. xlvi.). Probably
this cultus of the hippopotamus
was handed down from the earlier
Ibis, sacred to Thoth, the Egyptian
Hermes, implies a worship of
Thoth at or near Alexandria.
This is explained by the neighbourhood
of the town of Hermopolis Parva.
Jackal was sacred to Anubis.
He is therefore seen beside the
figure of Hermanubis (Pl.
xviii. 1138, 1428, 2050),
and occurs alone (xxvi.
Phoenix, in the form of the Bennu,
or Numidian crane, occurs on
a billon coin of Antoninus Pius,
in connection with the beginning
of the Sothiac Cycle (p. lvi.).
It is represented with a radiate
nimbus around its head, and is
accompanied by the inscription ΑΙωΝ (Pl.
Agathodaemon, snake, Uraeus.
are several interesting types
of the serpent and snake, the
serpent being the Agathodaemon,
sacred to Sarapis, and the snake
the Uraeus, sacred to his consort
Agathodaemon or good genius was
worshipped in every Egyptian
town, and had a special name
in each (Brugsch, Dict. Geog.,
p. 1364, 1372). Unfortunately
Brugsch's lists do not contain
the District of the Alexandrians.
On the coins he is always represented
erect, and usually wearing the
skhent, in the midst of corn
and poppies, generally with a
caduceus, also rising from the
xxvi. 171, 390). He also
appears on the back of a horse
(1308 not engr.). In a curious
variety of this type he has the
head of Sarapis (xiv.
1105). This distinctly connects
him with that divinity.
Uraeus is also represented erect,
and wears the headdress of Isis
505). The Agathodaemon and
Uraeus are shown facing one another,
with the caduceus club and sistrum
rising from the ground (668),
or in the midst of corn and poppies
In the symbols the caduceus should
refer to Hermanubis, but here
seems to be connected with Sarapis:
the sistrum is a symbol of Isis,
and the club of Harpokrates.
The frequency of the occurrence
of the caduceus is noteworthy.
sphinxes form an interesting
and difficult group. First there
is the usual Egyptian Androsphinx,
in the ordinary (male) form and
the ordinary recumbent position.
are also female sphinxes, whose
types are rather Greek than Egyptian.
The simple form wears the modius
and uraeus, and holds, like a
Greek griffin a wheel under the
xxvi. 846). This is an ancient
type, possibly Phoenician,* but
perhaps introduced into Alexandria
from some Greek settlement, such
as Naukratis. The complex form
differs alone in being three-headed,
the only obscure detail being
the headdress, for it is uncertain whether
the objects rising above the
modii are uraei (850);
in the other form the uraeus
is represented in front of the
modius, but in 846 only.
is a very remarkable trimorphous
male sphinx. This type has a
man's head, lion's body, and
the head of a crocodile in front
of the breast. The attitude is
standing, and upon the head is
one of the head-dresses of Osiris,
consisting of the ram's horns,
uraei, plumes, and disk Upon
the back is seated a small griffin,
holding its wheel (xxvi.
853). This type is clearly
connected with Sarapis, and,
by the presence of the wheel,
with the female sphinxes.
persons and Acts.
group of types representing Imperial
Persons and Acts is undoubtedly Roman,
and several of the types are seen
on Roman money, the rest being
mainly variations of these, due to
their local issue. None of them
are accompanied by Greek inscriptions. Here
they must be noticed very briefly,
and the inscriptions of the corresponding
Roman types supplied, in the
simplest form, as Profectio Aug. instead
of Profectio Augusti. The order of
cataloguing will followed, which
is that of subjects, the Emperor
in a triumphal chariot: first, then
on horseback, then standing, &c.,
as we cannot supply all the inscriptions.
following are the most important
in triumphal quadriga; in biga
triumphal types are those in
which the Emperor is represented
in a triumphal quadriga of horses
or elephants, holding laurel-branch
and aquila (Pl.
xxvii. 508, 863, 866). A
singular type is that in which
he is seen in a biga of Centaurs,
a subject clearly of this class,
notwithstanding its scenic character:
It is to be noted that the Centaurs
hold figures of Nike, and that
the type occurs under two Emperors, Domitian
and Trajan (507 not engr.).
types which would in Roman coins
bear such inscriptions as PROFECTIO
AVG. either represent the
Emperor on a cantering horse,
his spear couched, or galloping
over a prostrate enemy, and striking
xxvii 1430) or else simply
advancing, his right arm raised (1534).
sacrificing to Sarapis.
Emperor sacrificing before the
bust of Sarapis, raised on a
column, would in Roman coins
bear such an inscription as VOTA
SVSCEPTA or SOLVTA.
The type of Commodus is important
as showing the Emperor in the
dress of the High Priest of Sarapis
xxvii. 1432), whereas Elagabalus
is merely clad in the toga (1524).
coin with the Emperor, in this
case Hadrian, seated in a galley
under oars with steersman, with
the date of the 15th year, that
of the Emperor's visit to Egypt
871) would, if Roman, bear
the legend FELICITATI AVG.
Liberalitas or Congiarium type
of the 20th year of Antoninus
Pius is important, as its date does
not correspond with any one of
the nine liberalitates which
are commemorated on the Roman
coins of this Emperor. Clearly
it is, therefore, a local distribution,
and probably to the people of
Alexandria. The Emperor is seated on
a suggestum, receiving a tessera
from Liberalitas, while Alexandria
(?) stands behind, the right
hand upraised (Pl.
of the Emperor at Alexandria.
arrival of the Emperor Hadrian
at Alexandria is commemorated
by three types One, the Emperor
in a galley, has been already
noticed (p. lxxxviii.): the others
are clearly ADVENTVI AVG.
ALEXANDRIAE types, though
strikingly differing from the
treatment of the same or like
subjects on the Roman coinage
one type the Emperor is represented
in a slowly advancing chariot
drawn by four horses, clad in toga
and veiled, his right arm upraised,
in his left aquila, received
by Alexandria, clad in short chiton,
her head covered with elephant's
skin, her right arm upraised,
in her left hand vexillum (Pl.
the other type Alexandria, holding
vexillum, presents corn to the
or holding corn in her left kisses
the hand of the Emperor (870).
crowned by Euthenia (?) Alexandria.
are two other types of the Emperor
and Alexandria. On one she alternates
with a female figure (xxvii.
530), which may be Euthenia:
this type is of Trajan. In the
other type Commodus is seen crowned
by Alexandria, who has the turreted
headdress and holds corn in her
left hand (1436).
Alexandrian types of buildings
are of much archaeological importance,
as they undoubtedly represent
most of the chief edifices of
the city, and as most of them can
and Roman mode of representing
Greek and Roman mode of representing
buildings was generally in epitome.
A temple was thus represented
by its front portico, and when
it was thought fit to show the
statue of the sanctuary, all
the columns but the two extreme
ones were omitted to leave space
enough for the statue in the centre.
buildings of Alexandria, as represented
on the coins, are of four styles
of architecture, Greek, Roman,
Egyptian, and Graeco-Egyptian.
The Egyptian and Graeco-Egyptian styles
were evidently limited to temples
of the native divinities.
Temple of Zeus.
Temple of Zeus is represented
by a distyle portico, the statue being
shown between the columns. Zeus
is naked, looking back; on his
right hand, the thunderbolt;
in his left, sceptre; at his
feet, a flaming altar. (Pl.
xxviii. 533). lt is remarkable
that the figure of Zeus on the
coins has a different pose.
subject of the Temple of Athena
is similar. The edifice is shown
as a distyle portico, and the
statue of the goddess is seen;
she holds Nike on the right hand,
and an altar, flaming, is at
her feet (Pl.
xxviii. 1191). In an instance
of this type, without the temple,
Athena has the altar at her feet,
while behind her is a head apparently
of Zeus (414 not engr.). This
suggests the possibility that
the temple of Athena was attached
to that of Zeus.
of Tyche, Tychaion.
Temple of Tyche is the Tychaion described by
Libanius, and referred to by Theophylact
Simocatta. The temple is of Greek
type, like the two already described,
and is shown as distyle, the goddess
appearing on her couch between the
xxviii. 1198). Probably this
was the form of the chief statue;
those which Libanius describes,
including that of the standing
goddess in a groupe (vol. iv., p.
1113, ed. Reiske), having, according
to Theophylact Simocatta, been
outside the temple. (Hist. Viii,
of Sarapis, Sarapeum.
famous Temple of Sarapis, or
Sarapeum, is represented by a distyle
portico, in the pediment of which
are sculptured two figures of Nike,
placed so as to fill the space,
holding between them a globe:
within is seen the statue of
Sarapis, seated, Kerberos at
his feet. (Pl.
xxviii. 872.) On one type
we see figures on the back of
the throne, no doubt those of
Nike also represented on some
types of Sarapis, seated. (Pl.
are two types, referring to the
dedication of a temple, which
seem to represent the Sarapeum, within
which is another represented
of a smaller size. This must
be considered under the Adrianon,
or Hadrianum, the temple within the
Temple of Isis has two types,
possibly of two temples. The
first shows the propylon of an
edifice. This is in Egyptian
style, with the usual high slightly
inclined towers, pierced with square
apertures for the flagstaves,
having above the low portal in
the centre a statue of the goddess.
xxviii. 542, 879). The second
type shows a distyle edifice,
supported by Egyptian columns, in
the rounded pediment of which
is the globe and uraei: within
is seated Isis suckling Harpokrates
This type of Isis, also seen
by itself (Pl.
xvi. 762), was no doubt the
chief statue of a temple. The
edifice may portray the portico,
but is more probably the naos.
The rounded pediment would scarcely be
intended for the cornice of the
a variety of the second type
the edifice contains two so-called
Canopic figures of two forms
of Osiris (PL
xxviii. 877). This subject
also occurs without the edifice.
xviii. 779.) Possibly here
it merely indicates that Osiris
had a shrine in the temple of
Isis, whose place as the chief
object of worship is indicated
by her statue over the entrance
Temple of Hermanubis, or Anubis,
is not dissimilar in its representation
to that of Isis in the second
form, except that the columns
which support the rounded pediment
are of Greek or Roman type. Within
is seen the statue of Hermanubis,
with his jackal behind him (Pl.
xxviii. 1197, pediment angular,
1196 not engr.), as usual.
Temple of Nilus has an exceptional
representation, that of a tetrastyle
portico, within which is the
figure of Nilus seated on rocks
xxviii. 881), from which
it may be inferred that this
type, when occurring on the coins
is a copy of the chief statue.
somewhat difficult subject of
the temple dedicated in the Sarapeum
is now to be discussed. There
are two types. The first, which
is of Trajan, shows Sarapis standing
in a temple, apparently his own,
placing his right hand on a small
distyle edifice, with in one
case dots upon it to indicate
an inscription (Pl.
xxix. 537, cf. 534 not engr.).
Under Hadrian the same subject
recurs, with an important variety
in which Hadrian stands with
his right hand on the little
temple, before Sarapis, whose
right hand is raised: on the
little temple is the inscription
that the temple received the name
by which it was subsequently known
(876). Probably the original name
might be inferred from the coins
that this temple was merely an
addition to the Sarapeum, in
the form of a chapel or lesser
temple; but this is shown to
be out of the question, by its
having been turned into a church
as early as the time of St. Athanasius,
therefore long before the overthrow
of the worship of Sarapii, as
will be next shown. St. Epiphanius
mentions among the many churches
of Alexandria, the newly-built
one called the Kaisareia, formerly
the Adrianon, afterwards the
Licinian gymnasium, or basilica,
which under Constantius I I was
rebuilt as a church (adv.
Haer. II., ii.69). St. Athanasius
mentions the church (Apol.
I.) It is evident from these
different uses that the edifice
cannot alone be meant by St.
Epiphanius: the surrounding temenos
is probably included.
of Kaisareion (?)
extraordinary type of an Altar
of great size, assuming the character
of an edifice, the determination
of which I owe to my colleague
Mr. Murray, is peculuar to the
Alexandrian series. It is represented
as hexastyle, except in one type
xxix. 1204), which is tetrastyle,
no doubt on account of the statue.
The horns are like aplustria,
and at the corners beneath each
is a dolphin (see esp. 882,
1200). Upon the roof is in
the centre a mass of fuel from
which a flame rises, strangely
varied in one case (1204).
One type shows the edifice hung
with garlands (1255).
In some there is a statue before
an altar of Egyptian form: the
statue cannot be determined from
the Museum specimens (1200,
1201). In most there is between
each column a curule chair, with
in some cases a wreath, usually
upright but at least once flat
1204, 1255). It seems probable
that the altar is that of the
Emperor, and that the curule
chairs were intended for him
and the other imperial personages,
the wreaths standing for them
in their absence. If this attribution
be correct, no doubt the altar
was part of the Kaisareion, Or
Triumphal Arch first occurring
as a type under Domitian, is
clearly imperial. It cannot represent
one of the city gates, two of
which, those of Helios and of
Selene, might have had a common
form, and so have been represented
by a common type, for the chariot
in the centre of the roof is
a triumphal car, in which the
Emperor is standing (Pl.
xxix. 286, 341, 342).
is in the Museum a most interesting
type of Trajan, representing
a building, of a peculiar character
of architecture, which seems
to be a classical adaptation
of the Egyptian style. It consists
of a deep base, on which are
three bosses, surmounted by two
towers between which is a standing
statue. The towers are flanked
by columns, With between them
on each side a standing statue.
The statue in the centre is surmonuted
by an eagle with open wings,
and is therefore of Zeus, with
whose figure the form, so far
as it is discernible, agrees
(no. 546 not engr.). The building
has no sign of a door. I believe
it to be a public fountain.
celebrated Pharos of Alexandria
is several times represented
under three types: 1)
as the sole type (xxix.
884, var. 1205, 1206); 2)
with Isis- Pharia advancing towards
it (xvi. 1119); 3)
with a ship sailing from it (xxix.
1439), the last type occurring
only on a coin of Commodus.
first and second types give a
clear and consistent view of
the structure, which supplies
the deficiencies of ancient authors.
It is represented as a narrow
square Tower, the sides on most
coins slightly concave, with
a short upper storey, having
straight sides perforated to
show the light within. Near the
ground is a doorway approached
by a short flight of steps. At
each corner is a Triton blowing
a buccinum, and on the summit,
standing on a pedestal, a statue,
probably of Isis Pharia, notwithstanding
that the Pharos was dedicated
to the Dioscuri. (p. xlix). There are
slight varieties in tbe coins,
as the absence of the pedestal
of the statue, but it is evident
that there is no essential difference
in the representation of this
famuous structure, which has
an archaeological value, as it
portrays a type which was followed
by the architects of later lighthouses.
barge of Sarapis may be a Greek
representation of the sacred
barge of the Sarapeum, or may
symbolically portray the arrival
at Alexandria of the famous Statue.
It is a Greek galley, in the
midst of which is Sarapis seated,
Kerberos at his feet; on either
side is a goddess. In one type
the goddesses are Isis Pharia
and Demeter (Pl.
xxix. 886). In the other
type, they are Demeter and Tyche
the head of "Various Objects," I
have placed alphabetically important
types which could not readily
be classed in the preceding sections.
Thymiaterion in a shrine may
be connected with the worship
of the Emperor. (Pl.
xxx. 7). This is almost certain
in other types, and of course
certain in that of the flaming
altar with the accompanying legend, ΑΦΙΕΡωCΙC.
The Caduceus, when associated with
ears of corn, seems to belong to
the cultus of the Agathodaemon
Cornucopiae is evidently derived
from the Ptolemaic money, and
does not seem to be connected
with any divinity in a special
two Cornuacopiae may be a Homonoia
Crescent is no doubt a symbol
Ears of Corn with or without
poppy-heads probably belong to
Hands clasped are defined as
a Homonoia type (xxx.
of Isis, Harpokrates.
The Headdress of Isis (901)
and that of Harpokrates, the "hemhem" crown
need no comment.
various types of the modius are
remarkable, and show more than
anything else the popularity
at Alexandria of the cultus of
Demeter. The modius occurs alone
or between two flaming torches.
In one case the torches are encircled
by serpents (29),
in another the modius bears a
relief of the Rape of Persephone
The modius is also seen in a
quadriga drawn by horses (552),
in a biga of oxen (553),
and in a car drawn by the winged
serpents of Triptolemos (554).
In accord with the last type,
we see the modius placed on a
column, on either side of which
is one of the winged serpents,
Pilei of the Dioskuri occur.
is besides the usual Prow the
type of a galley sailing, which
in the series of Nero is accompanied
by the inscr. ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ,
indicating the ship which brought
the Emperor to Alexandria (176).
A like type occurs under Hadrian without
the inscription (xxvii.
Sistrum refers to Isis; and the
Star to Helios, as usual on Greek
various types of Trophies with
usually two captives refer to
Roman victories (xxxi. ),
but there is no one alluding,
so far as I can ascertain, to
the suppression of Egyptian revolts.
It is only in late types of Nike, &c.
that the Emperors may record
the defeat of a rival rather
than the subjugation of Egypt.
Vase-subjects present one interesting
type of an Egyptian sacred vase (xxxi.
Wreaths are apparently almost
always of laurel. At first they
represent the wreath of Nike
afterwards, when encircling the
inscription commomorating the
Decennalia, they may be used
merely as fit to enclose the
record of the auspicious completion of
the period. (1442,
1703, 2240.) In the money
of Marcus Aurelius the inscription
L Ι within a laurel-wreath
may commemorate the Decennalia