and allegorical subjects.
group of personifications and
allegorical subjects is a very
wide and interesting one. Clearly
the source is mainly Roman, though
the Greek interpretation of subject
and inscription gives a Greek
colour. Some few types are of
purely Greek origin. The entire
omission of the Muses would be
remarkable, were it not that
their temple, the museum, had
become a university, and all
recollection of the original
idea had doubtless been lost.
is needless to discuss well-known
types, common to the Roman Imperial
series, and determined by their
Latin inscriptions in that series.
The types to be discussed are
unusual or new ones of certain
attribution, and such as are
the Roman Aequitas, first appears,
named, holding scales in her
r. hand (Pl.
vii. 146). She again appears,
named, holding scales and sceptre
This type recurs later with the
name Moneta (viii.
1262). At the same time there
is a kindred type, unnamed, holding
scales and cornucopiae (Pl.
vii. 36O, cf. 1220). This
may indicate that when the type
of Dikaiosyne with scales and
sceptre was appropriated to Moneta,
a new type was introduced for
Dikaiosyne in lieu of that which
she had been deprived. The two
types continue until the reign
of Septimius Severus, under whom
they are found in the billon
series, Moneta being discriminated
by the adjunct of a statue of
viii. 1156). After this time
the type with scales and cornucopiae
alone survives. This is here
described as Dikaiosyne. On the
Roman Imperial coinage of the
same time there is no discrimination,
the inscriptions Aequitas and
Moneta accompanying the same
type, even when the little heap
of coins in front of the figure
would seem to indicate Moneta.
Thus the inscription AEQVITAS
PVBLICA accompanies the figures
of the three Monetae, characterized
by their heaps of coins, on a
medallion of Julia Domna, (Froehner, Medaillons,
p. 159), and a single figure
with the same adjunct (Op.
cit. p. 223). It is, however,
very unlikely that a term like
Moneta, taken from the Latin,
for which there was no Greek
equivalent, would have been generally
understood on the Alexandrian
coinage unless expressed.
types of Eirene are very interesting
and instructive. As a standing
figure she holds helmet and caduceus,
an early type (Pl.
vii. 148). The ordinary type
holds ears of corn and caduceus
The substitution of the ears
of corn for the olive-branch
of Roman Imperial money is characteristically
Egyptian, and shows that the
Alexandrians allowed themselves
a certain degree of freedom even
when dealing with purely foreign
types, where no influence of
the native religion could be
brought to bear on the representation.
Maximinus I, a new type of the
standing Eirene appears, in which
she holds a branch and a sceptre,
vii. 1783). The attribution
is fixed by denarii of the same
Emperor, in which the inscription
is PAX AVGVSTI, and the
type identical, though the object
held in the r. hand is a clearly
defined branch, no doubt intended
to be of olive. Afterwards the
older type with ears of corn
and caduceus recurs, as under
vii. 2099), and under Trebonianus
Gallus another new type occurs
with olive-branch and sceptre
held upright (2103.).
seated Eirene with Ploutos as
a child, having emerged from
the cornucopiae beside her throne
vii. 1261, 1376), has been
identified by Mr. B. V. Head,
who pointed out to me the similar
type of Hierapolis Phrygiae,
described by Dr. Imhoof-Blumer,
in which the infant Ploutos is
soon within the cornucopiae of
Eubosia or Euposia (Monnaies
Grecques, p. 401 sqq., Pl. G.
26). This identification led
Mr. Head to the conjecture that
the child who in some types of
Nilus emerges from his cornucopiae
may be Ploutos. It may be questioned,
however, whether the child is
not the 16th cubit see p. lxxvi.
It may be noted that in the Alexandrian
representations the child holds
a sceptre. See Nilus.
large bronze coins of Trajan
present a remarkable type of
Eirene and Homonoia clasping
hands, Eirene holding ears of
corn, and Homonoia a double cornucopiae,
with the inscription ΕΙΡΗΝΕ ΚΑΙ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ (Pl.
viii 434), the inscription
being once transposed in Museum
specimens, ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΡΗΝΕ (no.
428). There seems to be no parallel
in the coinage of Greek cities
to this association of two abstractions,
like the Latin HONOS ET VIRTVS.
unvarying type of Elpis, Spes
viii. 291) is very noteworthy
as showing a direct borrowing
of a marked Roman type, which
retains its archaic characteristics
even when combined with an Egyptian
figure in a group, the Egyptian
figure being treated in the Alexandrian
style. This group, that of Harpokrates
of Mendes and Elpis, is found
in two varieties (PL
xvii. 458, 459). A curious
type is Elpis turreted, the Elpis
of the city (Alexandria) under
Severus Alexander (Pl.
or Libertas, is represented on
the coins of Galba and Otho,
whose engravers here clearly
borrowed Eleutheria from the previous
issue, the type being characteristic
of Galba. The type is wholly
unlike the Libertas of Galbas
Latin coins, Eleutheria being
here portrayed holding wreath
and sceptre, and resting l. arm
on a column (Pl.
viii. 192), instead of holding
the cap of liberty and sceptre.
or Pietas, has two types. First she
is represented holding patera
and sceptre (Pl.
viii. 919, 1217), afterwards
with her r. sprinkling incense
on altar and holding acerra in
her l. (viii.
2089). The other varieties
of her type on Roman imperial
coins are wanting.
is evidently, from her first
appearance on the coins, associated with
Nilus as his consort. Her types will,
therefore, be discussed after
or Concord, on the Alexandrian
money, follows the Roman usage.
She implies either the quality
or its influence on two imperial
personages. The types are by
no means remarkable except that
of Eirene and Homonoia already
noticed. (p. lii.) On Greek imperial
coins we find a Homonoia of two
towns or rarely three. This idea,
for it could not have been more,
does not appear on the Alexandrian
coinage in consequence, no doubt,
of its severely imperial character.
of Ephesus with Alexandria.
this, the imperial money of Ephesus
under Guardians III, presents
a series of Homonoia coins of
that city with Alexandria, inscribed ΕΦΕCΙΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ,
with varieties, of which the
most important is ΕΦΕCΙΩΝ ΤΥΧΗ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ,
this referring to the type of
Lychee. The Alexandrian coins
of Guardians III and of Tranquillina,
present no trace of any reciprocity
on the part of Alexandria.
billon coins of Galba and Otho
present the type of a female
figure clad in talaric chiton
and peplos, holding little Nike
and trophy, with the inscription ΚΡΑΤΗΣΙΣ.
viii. 195). There is no exactly
corresponding type in Roman imperial
money. Thus both subject and
inscription might be Alexandrian, like
Semasia (p. lv. ). It may, however,
be reasonably argued that it
is most unlikely that an original
type and inscription would have
been introduced at Alexandria
in the brief reign of Galba,
and continued in the brief reign
of Otho. The type of Latin money
of Galba which most nearly resembles
this Alexandrian one is VIRTVS,
who appears on an aureus of this
Emperor, advancing l., clad in
short chiton with diplois and
buskins, holding little Nike
and sword in sheath, the Museum
specimen being of Spanish fabric.
It must be noted that the Roman
types of Virtus are male as well
as female, with the attributes
of Mars in the one case and of
Roma in the other. A second word
is frequently added in the inscription,
as AVG, AVGVSTI,
or the Emperor's name. The type
can then be the figure of Virtus,
like Roma, that of the Emperor,
or a subject connected with the
Virtus of the Emperor, it being
of course impossible to discriminate
between the Martial type which
occasionally accompanies the
inscription VIRTVS, and
the Emperor as a military personage.
It seems therefore that the Alexandrian
type Kratesis rather corresponds
to Virtus than represents a new
the types of Nero is a female
figure, armed with helmet and
spear, holding patera and shield,
who is probably Virtus, and therefore
either Kratesis or Arete. (179,
180, not engr.)
has already been discussed under
Dikaiosyne (p. l., li.) For the
types see Dikaiosyne and Moneta.
types of Nike are numerous, but
call for no further remark than
that they necessarily refer to
Roman victories, are personal
to the Emperors. In the coinage
of Alexandria there is no looking
back to past events in the history
of the city or its Greek rulers.
is one probable occurrence of
the Roman type Securitas, under Julia
vii. 1471). The equivalent
would be Ασφαλια or Αδεια,
more probably the former.
is a purely Alexandrian type.
The subject is a female figure
on a galloping horse; she is
clad in short chiton and peplos,
and urges her horse with a whip:
the inscription is CΕΜΑCΙΑ (Pl.
xi.1293,1381). The sense
of σημασια here
must be giving a signal. The
LXX use it in the sense of blowing
trumpets to announce a solemn
day, translating the words, "a
day of blowing the trumpets," Num.
xxix. 1, by ημερα σημασιας.
By Diodorus Siculus the plural
is employed in the sense of " aspects," where
he says that they who travel
across the great desert of Arabia
are like seafarers who προς τας απο των αρκτων σημασιας την διεζοδον πο ουνται (II.
was evidently very popular with
the Alexandrians. This is shown
by the frequeney of her appearance
on the coins, and by the importance
of her temple (See Tychaion).
She is represented, whether standing,
seated, or recumbent, holding
rudder and, unless recumbent,
cornucopiae, and wearing on her
head usually the modius (Pl.
xi. 725, seqq.), but rarely
the headdress of Isis (724),
to whom she is thus assimilated.
is shown in this aspect in a
bronze from Herculaneum. (Museo
Borbonico, Vol. III. tav
xxvi. and text.) Under Severus
Alexander the peplos of Tyche
is tied over her breast in a
xi. 1642), and under Philip
I this is clearly the knot of
xi. 1974). Afterwards its
distinctive character is not
regularly maintained, so far
as the coins show.
combination of Tyche and Isis
is merely the union of two modes
of representing a city, as defined
by Professor Gardner, by the
guardian deity and by a Tyche.
(Countries and Cities in Ancient
Art," Hellenic Journal,
IX. i. p. 48). Tyche is therefore
on the coins of Alexandria, Τυχη πολεως.
types indicate by their variety
that there was no specially famous
statue, unlike the case of Antioch
on the Orontes, where the leading
type represents the statue by
Eutychides. Libanius in his account
of the Tycheion gives a description
of a standing statue in that
temple which clearly was the
principal statue in one part,
not necessarily the chief one
in the whole building. It is
not repeated on the coins, perhaps
because it was part of a group
of Tyche crowning Ge, who, in
turn, crowned Alexander (ap.
Overbeck Schriftquellen, no.
1987.) Groups do occur on the
coins of not more than three
figures, sometimes one crowned
by another, which confirms the
statement of Libanius, who, rhetorician
as he is, can scarcely have invented
the subject. (See Pl.
xv. 2211, where the statue
of Sarapis is crowned by Nike,
Ares standing on the other side.
The type of the Temple of Tyche,
representing not the Tychaion
but its sanctuary, shows the
recumbent Tyche as the statue
xxviii. 1198.) This type
also occurs on homonoia coins
of Ephesus and Alexandria as
representing the Egyptian city,
with the difference that Tyche is
recumbent without legs to the
couch, and has a cornucopiae
behind her. (Ionia, Pl. xxxviii.
and other astronomical signs.
zodiacal types and those others
which have an astronomical reference
no doubt had their origin in
the commencement of the Sothiac
Cycle, A.D. 139, in the third
Alexandrian year of Antoninus
Pius. This Cycle marks the coincidence
of the Egyptian old civil or
Vague year, and their old fixed
or Sothiac year, which occurred
after the completion of 1461
Vague years, and 1460 Sothiac
are two coins in the astronomical
series of Antoninus Pius which
have the type of the zodiac.
It is to be noted that the zodiac
is not Egyptian, but was probably
introduced into Egypt at the
beginning of the Roman dominion,
when at least it first appears
on the monuments. The first zodiacal
coin is remarkable as not bearing
a date: the rest have year 8.
The type is the heads of Sarapis
and Isis, surrounded by two zodiacs,
one within the other, each sign
within the corresponding one.
xii. 1078). Sarapis and Isis
are of course the chief divinities
of Alexandria, but Isis may, as
Isis-Sothis, refer to the Sothic
Cycle. The coincidence of the
two zodiacs clearly indicates
that the two years have coincided. The
second coin shows the bust of Sarapis
in the centre, around which are the
busts of the sun the moon and
the five planets, and in an outer
circle, the Zodiac (Pl.
will be observed that in the
series of signs there is first
a regular order, the Moon in
Cancer and the Sun in Leo, followed
by the five planets and the five
signs from Virgo to Capricornus.
The five planets are then repeated
in retrograde order with the
remaining five signs in regular
order. The object of the inversion
is to retain the planets in their
following is the system and the
known coins referring to it: Moon
in Cancer (Pl.
xii. 1082), Sun in Leo (1084):
then in regular order, Mercury
in Virgo (Mionnet, 1607), Venus
in Libra (Id. 1608), Mars in
Scorpio (Feuard. Cat. Dem., Pl.
xxiii. 1664), Jupiter in Sagittarius
xii. 1087), Saturn in Capricornus
(Mt., 1611), next in retrograde
order, Saturn in Aquarius (Pl.
xii. 1088), Jupiter in Pisces
(1090), Mars in Aries (Feuard.,
Pl. xxiii. 1668), and Venus in
only type of which I can find
no instance is Mercury in Gemini.
Ploughman and the Reaper.
are two other types which are
not zodiacal, nor belonging to
Greek uranography, and which
are classed at the end of the
astronomical series as they can
scarcely belong to any other
group. Neither Greek nor Egyptian
mythology seems to offer an explanation
of them. These types are the Ploughman
and the Reaper. They are not
connected with the zodiacal group,
as they occur on coins of the
5th and not the 8th year. The
Ploughman is represented driving
a plough drawn by a yoke of oxen,
whom he goads. He wears a very
short kirtle a chlamys and a
pointed cap (Pl.
xii. 1091). The Reaper wears
the same kirtle and nothing else.
He holds the sickle with which
he cuts ears of corn (1092).
The two types are connected in subjeet
and in the manner of representation, but
still more strikingly by the Egyptian
kirtie, although the Greek artist
is seen in the modification of
dress in the case of the Ploughman.
In examining the various uranographies
I have only been suceessful in
recognizing one of these supposed
signs. The Ploughman occurs in the
Sphaera Barbarica,* and
this fact supports the theory
that the types represent signs.
Moreover the Ploughman suggests
the Reaper. Without entering
into the difficult question of
the various uranographies known
to the early astrologers, which would
involve too large a digression,
it is necessary here to add that
the Sphaera Barbarica was a uranography
accommodated to the geography
subject of the types representing
Egyptian divinities is a far
more complicated one than that
just left. This subject is itself
obscure: there is no good treatise
on the later Egyptian mythology,
nor even on the cultus at Alexandria:
we have largely to depend on
the authority of the old religious
documents as illustrating a system
greatly changed by Greek influence.
It will be the best method to
arrange the types in the most
probable order and to justify
that order, adding only the most
necessary illustration. This
part of the Introduction is in
fact a first attempt towards
an outline of the Graeco-Egyptian
mythology of Alexandria, with
some hints for the consideration
of the later phases of the mythology
of the whole country, it being
borne in mind that the influence
of Greek ideas was very unequally
felt by the Egyptians. Sarapis,
however, associated with Isis
and Harpokrates, undoubtedly
had in his famous statue a Greek
form, and so presented a wholly
new type to which the Egyptian
mind would not be readily accustomed.
We must make allowance for the
growth of the wide popularity
of the worship of Sarapis, but
yet we cannot consider that he
ever became a part of Egyptian
mythology. The mythology we have
to examine is that of Alexandria.
On the other hand the worship
of Sarapis could not be readily
accepted by the Greeks of Alexandria,
coloured as it was by Egyptian
ideas, especially in his association
with the purely Egyptian Isis
and Harpokrates. Consequently
it was long limited to the Egyptian
quarter of Alexandria, where
the Sarapeum lay, and was to
a great extent Egyptian despite
the adoption of a Greek statue.
Thus the Graeco-Egyptian mythology
of Alexandria was originally
the religion of the Egyptian
quarter, though it afterwards
spread through the Greek part,
so that in the time of Gordianus
III, the Ephesians considered
that Sarapis and Isis were as
good representativos as the Tyche
of the city for Alexandria as
was the Asiatic or the Greek
Artemis for Ephesus (see the
Homonoia coins, Ionia, Pl. xxxviii.
Egypt each city worshipped a
Cycle of nine divinities or an
Ennead, of which the first with
two associates the Triad or group
of the chief divinities of the
city. The Triad was usually of
father mother and son.
Triad of Alexandria was of Sarapis,
Isis and Harpokrates. (Pl.
xiv. 749). Each of these
had different forms, generally
or always with appropriate epithets:
these we cannot always define
on the coins, and thus the representations
are generally described simply
as of Sarapis, &c., without
epithet. When the coin-types
suggest an epithet or compound
name it is noted.
name Sarapis is a Greek form
of the Egyptian Hesar-Hapi, a
word compounded of the names
of Osiris and Apis, and applied
to the divinity who was the defunct
and deified, thus the "Osirian" form,
of the sacred bull Apis. As Sarapis
this Egyptian divinity appears
in a Greek form. It is necessary
to account for this exceptional
fact in the Graeco-Egyptian mythology.
It is not merely a case of a
new type introduced from Greek
art; it is that of such a type
substituted for the regular Egyptian
famous statue of Sarapis was
brought to Alexandria by one
of the Ptolemies to be the centre
of a new cultus. It was necessary
to cover the proceedings with
a cloud of mystery; for so strong
a measure needed the seeming
sanction of the supernatural.
Hence the growth of legend which
surrounds the facts and which
led at an early time to contradictory
versions of what occurred. The
basis of the legend is the desire
to account for the Greek character
of the statue.
obscurity of the legend is to
be seen in both the time and
source to which the introduction
of the statue is referred, still
more in the extraordinary circumstances
under which it is said to have
occurred. The king under whom
the statue was brought is variously
called Ptolemy I II or III, if
we may so read Tacitus, where
he says, regnante Ptolomaeo,
quem tertra aetas tulit. (Hist.
statue was Greek and assigned
to the celebrated Bryaxis, unless
there were two sculptors of that
name. The known Bryaxis worked
at the sculptures of the Mausoleum,
yet Pliny says, Bryaxis Aesculapium
et Seleucum fecit (N.H. xxxiv.
73) If he intends Seleucus Nicator,
this would suit a second sculptor
of the name, but Overbeck notes
that he does not say Seleucum
regem (Schriftq. 1327).
Supposing the statue to be earlier
in date than the first Ptolemy,
which is thus probable, it must
have been brought to Egypt from
some Greek city. This is the
general view of the legend, and
the favourite city is Sinope
in Pontus or strictly Paphlagonia.
Its name presented a happy similarity
to the Egyptian Hill Sinopion
at Memphis, Σινωπιον ορος,
Se-(t-)n-Hapi, the Hill of Apis,
where was the temple of Hesar-Hapi,
whence some derived the name
Sinopite Zeus (Ζευς Σινωπιτης, Dionys.
Perieg. 255, cf. Eustath.
Comm. ad. v.), applied to
Sarapis at Alexandria. What could
be more likely than that the
Sarapis of the Sinspion in his
Greek form should be traced to
the Sinope of Paphlagonia?
there was a temple of Sarapis
at Rhakotis the palaeopolis of
Alexandria, which was older in
date than the foundation of the
Sarapeum by one of the Ptolemies,
perhaps in the same temenos*,
the new cultus would have more
readily found a home, where the
Egyptians were more used than
elsewhere to Greek art.*
is no question that the statue
of Sarapis attributed to Bryaxis
was one of Hades, possibly modified
in attributes on the introduction
of the cultus into Alexandria.
The coins present two types,
as though representing statues,
besides pantheistic types which
may be merely numismatic. The
two usual types are unvaried;
they represent Sarapis seated,
Kerberos at his feet (Pl.
xiii. 447, 621, 1749), or
standing with the same attendant
The seated type seems to represent
the famous statue, as it is shown
in the Sarapeum. (Pl
xxviii. 872, 1252). That
the standing type also represents
a statue is by no means improbable.
lapidary inscriptions present
a single style for Sarapis which
is pantheistic. It is ΖΕΥΣ ΗΛΙΟΣ ΣΑΡΑΠΙΣ.
Upon the coins we find ΣΑΡΑΠΙΣ (239,
not engr.), ΖΕΥΣΣΑΡΑΠΙΣ (258
n.e. sqq.), and ΗΛΙΟΣ ΣΑΡΑΠΙΣ (Pl.
xv. 284). It is to be noted
that the inscription ΗΛΙΟΣ ΣΑΡΑΠΙΣ applies
to a type discriminated by the
radiate diadem. It would seem
therefore that we should always
consider the ordinary type Zeus
Sarapis, and that it would probably
be right for the radiate to follow
the lapidary inscriptions and
have the name Zeus Helios Sarapis.
is a remarkable pantheistic type
of the head of Sarapis, most
complete with the attributes
of Zeus Ammon, Helios, Poseidon,
Asklepios, and Nilus (Pl.
xv. 744, 1102, cf. 1362, 1945).
It is hopeless in the absence
of an inscription, numismatic
or lapidary, to find the correct
designation of this type.
is now possible to sum up what
the coins sanction our holding
as the most satisfactory theory
of the introduction of the worship
of Sarapis, and of the character
attributed to him. The famous
statue was the work of a Greek
artist, probably Bryaxcis. It
represented Hades. Ptolemy I
or II in some manner, which was
kept secret, acquired this statue.
It may be remarked that a statue
of Hades can never have been
very popular in a Hellenic city.
In Egypt the statue was held
to represent a form of the most
popular divinity of the country,
the Egyptian Hades, Osiris. This
form, the deified Bull Apis,
Hesar-Hapi, or Osiris-Apis, originated
the name Sarapis. Osiris was
of very high importance in the
Egyptian Pantheon, and it was
the native habit to assimilate
all forms to a leading divinity.
Thus in earlier times each local object
of worship was assimilated to
Ra the sun, as Amun with the
name Amun-Ra. Sarapis as Osiris
could thus be as readily assimilated
to Zeus as the Libyan Ammon could
become Zeus Ammon. Osiris was
the sun of the night, and the
sun, however important Osiris
became, could not be deposed
from the headship of the Pantheon.
Thus the assimilation to Helios
was as natural as that to Zeus.
Then Sarapis became Zeus Helios
Sarapis, though we cannot be
sure that he should always be
described more fully than as
Zeus Sarapis or even Sarapis.
Isis Pharia and Isis Menuthitis.
was an Egyptian divinity. As
the consort of Osiris she became
the consort of Sarapis. At Alexandria
she was worshipped under two
forms, as Isis Pharia and Isis
Menuthitis. Εισις η εν Μενουθι,
(B.C.I.G. iii. 4683b.) Isis Pharia
is easily recognized in the type
of the goddess in Greek dress,
holding an inflated sail (Pl.
xvi. 1113), and sometimes
with the Pharos before her (1119).
No other type can be identified
with either of the local forms.
Sothis is represented on the
1339), and may have had a
temple or a shrine in a temple
of Isis at Alexandria. There
are no pantheistic types of Isis
on the coins Her case was unlike
that of her consort Sarapis.
She had a definite place, as
the chief goddess, in the Pantheon,
and it was therefore not necessary
to assimilate her to any other
divinity. The assimilations which
we see are those of other divinities
to Isis. Euthenia, as the spouse of
Nilus, himself assimilated to
Sarapis, takes the peculiar knot
characteristic of Isis (Pl.
xxi. 796). Tyche of the City
assumes the headdress of Isis,
which is only a combination of
two modes of representing a city.
724,5. For Isis Tyche see
B.C.I.G. iii. 6005, for I. Dikaiosyne
II. 2295). Various representations of
Isis alone or Isis suckling Harpokrates
are given. (Pl.
the third member of the triad
of Alexandria, occupies a different
position from those of Sarapis
and Isis. As Har-pa-khruti or "Horus
the infant," he is a lesser
divinity, and can only be brought
up to a position worthy of his
parents by identification with
more important forms of Horus.
is to be noted that the Egyptian
mythology had no true genealogies:
thus Horus as Har-uer or "Horus
the great," though brother
of Osiris and Isis, was only
another form of the infant Horus,
their child. Sarapis was identified
with various divinities, under
their Greek names. Isis, the "myriad
named," had a multitude
of epithets, still remaining
Isis. Harpokrates had his infant
form and various other forms,
all mature, from the diverse
shapes in which Horus was worshipped
in Egypt. These are of special
importance as connecting the
Alexandrian worship with the
nome worshup, and as showing
by their occasional difference from
the nome types that the provincial
coinage, wherever struck, was
intended for local circulation.
different types of Harpokrates
are as follows, both from Alexandrian
and nome coins.
types seem to represent the forms
of Harpokrates worshipped at
Alexandria. These are, Harpokrates
as a naked child, his hand to
his chin, in his l. cornucopiae.
xvii. 306). This type occurs
with the busts of Sarapis and
xiv. 749). In both cases
the headdress is obscure. Allied to
this type is the figure of Harpokrates
as a youth, his lower limbs covered
with a himation, but, in other
respects, the same as the preceding, the
headdress again obscure. (Pl.
xvii. 991). There is another
type which wears the skhent, and,
as a bust; has behind the club
surmountad by a hawk (1387),
or, as a figure, is a youth naked but
for himation thrown over l. arm,
in which the club with the hawk
is held, or draped; at his feet
is a ram with a disk on his head
cf. 768, not engr.). The ram
is connected with Harpokrates
at Mendes, and I have therefore
classed this last type to that
of Herakleopolis Magna has an
identical representation on the
Alexandrian coins (Pl.
xvii. 766), and on those
of the Herakleopolite Nome. He
wears modius and raises his hand
in the characteristic attitude
of Harpokrates and holds the
club of Herakles on which the
hawk is perched. Here he is identified,
as is evident from the nome-coins,
with Her-Shefit the " Ram-faced," the
chief divinity of Herakleopolis,
a form of Osiris. (Renouf, Myth
of Osiris Unnefer, 17, 18.)
To the Greeks, Her-Shefit was
Herakles: hence the club here
given to Harpokrates.
of Mendes is the third member
of a triad of which the chief
was a varietyof the ram-headed
type of Osiris. On the Alexandrian
coins he is represented as bearded
and with the Ammon horn, holding
sceptre and club. His headdress
is either the hemhem-crown of
Harpokrates, the horns disk and
plumes of Osiris, or the modius
of Sarapis. He is seated on arms
and accompanied by two rams,
or simply seated on a throne
without back (Pl.
xvii. 456, 468, 459). On
the coins of the Mendesian Nome
a divinity is seen standing,
wearing the horns disk and plumes
of Osiris, and carrying a goat
on his hand. On the Alexandrian
coins he appears as Harpokrates
with club and ram (p. lxiv.);
the Mendesian type is probably
of the local form of Osiris,
of Pelusium occurs on the Alexandrian
coins. On one we see a bust of
a youthful character, wearing
the hemhem-crown, and having
on the left side, as if held
in the left hand, a pomegranate.
xvii. 764). On the coins
of the town of Pelusium the same
head of Harpokrates occurs; but
as it is not a bust, the pomegranate
is omitted. (Langlois, Pl. iii.
1). The pomegranate is, however,
the reverse type of a smaller
coin of Pelusium, (Id. p. 89,
no. 70), and the club occurs
on another of the Prosopite Nome
(Id. p 50, no. 97), just as the
corresponding figure does on
larger coins of the same Nome.
(Id. p. 50, no. 96).
Harpokrates of Kanopos has a remarkable
type, differing only in adjuncts
on the Alexandrian and the nome
coins. He is represented as a youth,
having below the waist the body
of a crocodile; he wears the skhent,
and holds his right hand in the
characteristic attitude of Harpokrates,
and in his left carries a coruncopiae.
xvii. 462). The chief object
of worship at Kanopos, the capital
of the Menelaïte Nome, was
the crocodile-headed Sebak, who,
as identified with Osiris, might
give rise to this compound form
of Harpokrates, an Osirian divinity.
of Taua and Buto.
of Taua appears on the coins
of the Phthemphuthite Nome, of
which this town was the capital,
squatting on the lotus, his right
hand to his mouth, in his left
the club, and wearing a crown,
if correctly represented in the Catalogue
Demetrio, II. p. 321. On
the coins of the Phthenote Nome,
Harpokrates of Buto has the same
type without the crown, if again
the Catalogue Demetrio is
correct. (Ibid. p. 325). The
type of the squatting Harpokrates
on the lotus in the Alexandrian
series wears the hemhem-crown,
and if the engravings above referred
to are correct, can scarcely
be other than the Harpokrates
of Tana. (Pl.
xvii. 1130). The remarkable
type of Harpokrates, seated sideways
on an androsphinx, wearing skhent,
his right hand to his mouth,
in his left a cornucopiae, the
sphinx surrounded by lotuses, &c.,
is cearly a Harpokrates of the
and if the view expressed above
be correct, he might suit the
Harpokrates of Buto.
are certain remarkable representations
of divinities in the form of
vases with human heads, known
as Canopi, from the circumstance
that Rufinus uses this term in
the singular 'Canopus' for the
divinity represented under the
symbol of a hydria, which he
thus describes: " Ipsum
Canopi simulacrum, pedibus perexiguis,
attracto collo et quasi sugillato,
ventre tumido in modum hydriae
cum dorso aequaliter tereti formatur." (Hist.
Eccl. II. xxvi). It may be inferred
from the context that these vases
were painted in various colours
(variis coloribus pictam), and
had each a human head (caput
desuper positum). The original
material was pottery (hydriae
types on all the coins have the
general characteristics described
by Rufinus. The vase is Human-headed;
no feet are visible as the lowest
part of the vase is surrounded
by a kind of support, which evidently
is intended to prevent its overturning;
the neck is drawn out and pressed
into form (quasi sugillato),
as would be the case in a vase
of pottery; the body is globular
in front, and flat behind, and
it is either decorated with figures or
represent Osiris and Isis.
The Canopi represent Osiris and
Isis, Osiris being probably Sarapis.
The Canopus of Osiris is of two
forms, (1) draped and wearing the
atef-crown, which consisted of
the crown of Upper Egypt, between
two plumes, above the ram's horns
xviii. 625); and (2) adorned
with figures and wearing the crown
with disk and plumes above the
ram's horns with uraei (268,
775, 2214). The Canopus of
Isis is draped, with a uraeus in
front of the body of the vase,
and wears the headdress of cow's
horns and lunar disk (633).
These types cannot as yet be further
discriminated. The two headdresses
of Osiris are indiscriminately
used by the ancient Egyptians,
and therefore we cannot assign
them to particular forms. No doubt
in Alexandrian usage they designated
such forms; or they would not occur
together in one coin-type (452,
632, 779, 1133, 1134). This
established, it is evident that
each type was restricted to its
particular use, whether both are
represented on a coin or only one.
can be no doubt that the origin
of the Canopi is due to the vases
with the heads of the so-called
Genii of Amenta, the children
of Osiris, in which the viscera
of the dead were placed when
the body was embalmed. One of
these was human-headed, the rest
animal-headed. These vases, as
connected with Osiris, would
suggest the further development
of the Canopi, which may have
been aided by the use of mummy
figures of Osiris, to hold funereal
papyri. The origin of the name
Canopus for the vases is more
the Alexandrian Hermanubis.
the old Egyptian religion Anubis,
the jackal-headed god of embalmment,
a son of Osiris, is an important member
of the Osirian group. In the
Alexandrian system he is represented
by Hermanubis, whose form is as
Greek as that of Sarapis. The
origin of the name Hermanubis is
a remarkable instance of the
the old system there was a form
of Horus and Anubis, callod Har-m-Aunp
This was a combination of two
opposites, so usual in Egyptian
mythology. The Alexandrians adopted
the name, and by a slight change
made it a compound of Hermes
and Anubis, the Greek and the
Egyptian Psychopompi. The figure
of Hermanubis is not jackal-headed,
but is accompanied by a jackal.
On his head he wears a modius,
like the gods of the cycle of
Sarapis: this is sometimes exactly
the modius of Sarapis, and frequently
has a lotus-petal in front or
at the side: he holds palm-branch
and caduceus, or the two combined
xviii. 1138, 1428, 1506, 1678,
2050). He once appears in
attendance on Sarapis (Pl.
xv. 748) as Elpis on Harpokrates
of Mendes (xvii.
it is clearly accurate to describe
the usual type of this divinity
as Hermanubis, probably, if we
are to judge from the comparative
frequency of the occurrence of
the name Anubis in literature,
the usual name was Anubis, as
Zeus Sarapis seems to have been
usually called Sarapis simply.
type. Helios Hermanubis?
pantheistic type of Hermanubis
occurs in which he wears the
radiate diadem of Helios (Pl.
xviii. 1506), thus recalling
perhaps by accident, the solar
character of the first mythological
element in the original form,
Har-m-Anup. According to the
analogy of Holios Sarapis, this
type should have been named Helios
types of Nilus and his immediate
cycle form the most interesting
group in the mythology and art
of Alexandria. In these subjects
the fancy of the Alexandrians
had free scope, and no others
give us so high an idea of their
capacity when unshackled by Greek
ideas and forms on the one hand
and by Egyptian on the other.
ancient Egyptian type of Nilus
as a god, when the name Hapi,
probably signifying " the
hidden," is applied to him,
was that of a stout old man,* painted
green or blue, naked but for
a waist-belt with hanging strips
of linen. There were two Niles, the
Nile of the South or Upper Egypt,
and the Nile of the North or
Lower Egypt. The Nile of the
South wears on his head flowers
of the symbolical plant of that
country, the lotus, and the Nile
of the North similarly tufts
of the papyrus. (Comp. Brugsch, Geog.
Inschr. i. pp. 77, 78).*
to Osiris; therefore to Sarapis.
is well known that Nilus was
assimilated to Osiris; consequently
in the Alexandrian system the
assimilation to Sarapis was a
matter of course.* This
is seen in a pantheistic type
of Sarapis, already noticed (p.
xv. 744). It. is remarkable
that though Sarapis takes an
attribute of Nilus, the converse
does not occur.
the old mythology Nilus is an
inferior divinity. This is seen
in the function which the two
Niles perform, when they bind
the royal throne with their distinctive
water-plants, the lotus and the
papyrus. No doubt Nilus holds
high rank in a pantheistic poem
like the Hymn of Enna,* but
this is quite an exceptional
document. With the new system
it was different. A river-god
recommended himself to the nature-loving
Greeks, the mystery of the source
of the Nile aroused their scientific
wonder, and the recording of
the annual rise pleased their
scientific accuracy. Moreover
Nilus, who had excited the interest
of the Greek poets, and who could
be represented in a Greek form,
would be welcome at Alexandria,
and it only needed the relation
to Sarapis to effect his introduction.
Originally without a consort,
who could not have been easily
introduced in scenes where the
two Niles were mutually complementary,
he now needed one. This female
counterpart was found in Euthenia,
who, since Nilus was assimilated
to Sarapis, was herself assimilated
to Isis (Euthenia).
of Nilus in the Vatican gives
famous statue of Nilus in the
Vatican is the most complete
representation of the type as
formed by Alexandrian art. It
was found with a statue of the
Tiber which was suggested by
it, and which must therefore
be later, which is, moreover,
of inferior style. The later
statue is probably of the age
of the coin of Alexandria of
Autoninus Pius, year 17, with
the standing figures of the two
rivers and the inscription ΤΙΒΕΡΙC ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ (Pl.
xxi. 1167, Mionnet, vi p.
235, no.1591, from Eckhel, Syll. pr.
p. 72.) It is indeed possible
that this coin commemorates the
placing together of the two statues.
Nilus is either an original of
the later age of the Ptolemies;
or a very fine copy of an earlier
time than the Tiber. (For the
two statues, see Visconti, Mus.
Pie Clém. i., p. 288,
sqq. pls. Nilus, xxxvii.; Tiber,
xxxviii.: for the date, cf. Friedrichs-Wolters, Gipsabgüsse,
p. 611, no. 1543.)
this statue Nilus is represented
as a stout old man, reclining,
his head turned back. He is crowned
with a wreath apparently of the
leaves and buds of the lotus.
(Visc., op. cit., pl.
xxxvii). In his right hand he
carries ears of corn, like his
consort Euthenia on the coins,
instead of the usual branch of
coin representations; in his
left he holds a cornucopiae with
bunches of grapes, lotus-petals, and
other products. His left arm
rests on an androsphinx. Beneath
him are the waters of the river,
which flow from the point of
the cornucopiae. About Nilus
play sixteen male children of
diminutive size, the sixteen cubits
of a good inundation, to be presently
discussed. Fifteen have issued
from the cornucopiae and move
down over it, sport with an ichneumon
and a crocodile in the waves
beneath, and climb up the right
leg and arm of Nilus. The sixteenth,
the most important of all, is
just emerging from the cornucopiae,
the last of the series. The order
is evident. (See the engraving
in Baumeister, Denkm.
the statue is much restored;
in particular the upper parts
of all the children: the work
was well done by Caspar Sibilla.
The restorations are shown in the
pl. of Clarac, 748.
back and two sides of the base
are adorned with characteristic
reliefs in place of the stream
on the front. They show fights
of crocodiles and hippopotami,
pigmies in boats hunting the
crocodile, and cows, as in Pharaoh's
dream, feeding on the bank. The
reliefs are given by Clarac,
pl. 748, from Visconti Mus.
Pie Clém i., pl. xxxvii.,
as if on the front of the base,
which of course makes them out
of scale and crowded. (For a
description of the statue see
p. 611 seqq., no 1543.)
this statue, or its original,
belongs to an age of Greek art
when the theatrical ruled, it
stands out as an example of a
dignified manner, lighted up
by an agreeable playfulness,
which is consistent with the
genius of the witty Alexandrians,
and may be traced to the love
of humour which is evident in
ancient Egyptian work even of
a serious character. (See, for
instance, Wilkinson, Anc.
Eg. 3 ed V., pl. 84, p. 415,
Clarac engraves several other sculptures,
all inferior to the famous Roman
statue. The most important are
the Nile of the Louvre and the
Worsley statue now in the possession
of Sir Francis Cook, Bart., Visconde
de Montserrat, at Cintra. Both
are evidently copies of the Roman
statue. The Louvre statue gives
sixteen children (Clarac,
pl. 749 c.); the Worsley seventeen
(op. cit., pl. 748). The
other types are simpler, and, except
the Holkham statuette, are entirely
without the children, the general
characteristic being that they
carry the cornucopiae in the left
hand, the arm resting on a sphinx,
a crocodile, or the head of a hippopotamus.
The Holkham statuette is important.
Nilus wears a wreath of cinquefoil
flowers and leaves, holds a bunch
of grapes and the cornucopiae,
resting his left arm on a hippopotamus. There
are two children in the water and
a crocodile. (Clarac, pl.
749; Michaelis, p. 315,
316). For the various types see
Clarac (pl. 748, 749, 749A, 749B,
of Nilus Philostrata.
description of Nilus in the "Pictures of
Philostratus closely agrees with
the complete subject described
above, making allowance for the
freedom permitted to the painter
as compared with the sculptor,
and for the rhetorical style
of the writer. The following
is a sufficient outline of the
passage: The Nile is represented
with the Cubits as infants playing
about him, smiling, in such a
lively portrayal, that one would
think they could speak. They
climb over him, and he gives
them flowers to make wreaths;
they mount up one above another
carrying sistra, the characteristic
instruments of Nilus. "Crocodiles
and hippopotami are added by
some in the stream," " as
well as symbols of agriculture
and navigation.* He
is painted of gigantic stature,
his foot on the fountains, while
he gazes on Poseidon, and asks
many children. (Philost. Imag.
I. v.). The description is on
the whole faithful, the sistra alone
being wanting in all statues,
but they may easily have either
been of metal or too fragile,
and thus have not survived to
coins give us an epitome of the
same subject. As their space
does not admit the sixteen cubits,
they are either omitted, or frequently
one, the essential sixteenth
is introduced, or rarely a small
number. It will be well to take
each part of the subject, and
to note the important variants
on the coins.
attitude is varied. The river
is usually recumbent, almost
always supported by a crocodile,
and then carried on the stream.
Sometimes he is seated on rocks,
no doubt the rocks of the First Cataract.
In his temple the statue is thus
xxviii. 881), and from this
we may conjecture that the Vatican
statue was not or does not represent the
chief statue at Alexandria. He
is rarely seen in a standing
posture, and then only in a group.
xxi. 477, 1167). The two
Niles are never represented.
The idea does not occur in Alexandrian
art, which knew but one Nile,
which mythologically rose at
the First Cataract: hence the
rocks on which the figure sits.
usually of lotus; rarely papyrus?
wreath on the head of Nilus is
usually of the lotus, two buds
of the flower generally appearing
in front. (Pls. xix. xx. xxi.)
It may be sometimes of the papyrus,
but this is hard or impossible
dress of Nilus is a himation
over his lower limbs.
held in hands, usually papyrus
branch and cornucopiae.
objects held in the hands are
usually a branch of the papyrus
reed and the cornucopiae. In
one type Nilus holds the lotus-flower
in his right hand. (Pl.
xix. 285.) Generally the
papyrus reed is held in the right
hand, and the cornucopiae in
the left but the converse is
Hippopotamus, and Elephant.
already mentioned the crocodile
almost always supports Nilus
when recumbent. When he is seated
the crocodile, the hippopotamus,
or the elephant, stands on the
rocks and Nilus rests his left
arm upon the creature. When he
is recumbent, and unsupported
by the crocodile, he rests his
arm on the hippopotamus, who
stands behind him. He is thus
the Nile at the cataract-island,
sixteen Cubits are represented
on the coins with the Nilus type,
in epitome, the largest number being
eight, or perhaps ten; this on
billon coins, which are not large
enough to admit of full or clear
xxi. 1577, 1587, 1672). All
appear on a coin with Euthenia (xxii.
485). The identification
with the sixteen Cubits of a
good Nile at Memphis is proved by
the statement of Philostratus
referred to above (p. lxxiv.);
by the number specified by PlinyJustum
incrementum est cubitorum xvi.;
minores aquae non omnia rigant,
ampliores detinent tardius recedendo " (N.
H. V. ix. 10); and by the
present rise at Cairo, which
is the same for a good Nile.
Moreover, the numerals 16, which
frequently occur on the coins
with Nilus types, and on no others,
show the correctness of the interpretation.
16th Cubit, Ploutos?
most important of the Cubits
is the sixteenth, who in the
Vatican statue emerges from the
cornucopiae. He is represented
more frequently than any other.
Usually he emerges from the cornucopiae,
but sometimes he sits on it,
and not unfrequently he holds
a wreath towards Nilus as if
to crown him. It has been suggested
that he is Ploutos (p. lii.).
This would not disaccord with
the statement of Horapollo, that
16 signified in hieroglyphics ηδονη (I.
xxxii.), though a male personification
could not be so called. Nor do
Pliny's words present any difficulty: " In
xii cubitis famem (provincia)
sentit, in xiii etiamnum esurit,
xiv cubita hilaritatem adferunt,
xv securitatem, xvi delicias " (l.c.).
It is quite evident that here we
have ideas and not personifications.
Nilometer occurs in front of
the figure of Nilus in connection
with the Cubits, in the form
of an obelisk (Pl.
xxi. 1577, 1587), or as a
bearing marks probably intended
to indicate an inscription (1301).
in stream beneath Nilus.
Nilus is represented recumbent
in the river supported by the
crocodile, sometimes water plants
are seen in the stream. These
are apparently lotus flowers
xx. 472, xxi.
1152), as may be inferred
from a comparison of the type
of Harpokrates of Buto (?) (p.
xvii. 460), who would be
surrounded by the lotus-flowers,
as they were specially sacred
any types of Nilus commemorative
of good inundations?
might be supposed that certain
types of Nilus, especially those
with the numerals 16, and those
in which the infant Ploutos(?)
holds a wreath towards the river-god,
are commemorative of good inundations.
The Alexandrian year began 29-30th
of August, and the maximum height
of the inundation at Memphis
is attained, at latest, about
a month after. It would therefore,
have been easy to commemorate
a good Nile on the coinage of
the new year, supposing that
it was not usual to prepare all
the dies before the close of
the preceding year. The coins
in the Museum make it possible
to answer this question with
reasonable probability, the types
of Nilus being common and the
specimens numerous. It is evident
that the choice of types referring
to the good inundations is arbitrary,
as they occur, for instance,
under Trajan and Hadrian, in
an order which cannot correspond
to the occurrence of natural
phenomena. Under Hadrian there
are Nilus-types in 13 years,
those with the numerals 16 are
found only under three years,
and those three years are consecutive.
It is obviously useless to pursue
in biga of hippopotami, rides
are two remarkable types of Nilus,
to be noted for their non-Hellenic
character, through the art is
not native Egyptian. In one Nilus
stands in a biga of hippopotami
xxi. 476), in the other he
rides a hippopotamus (1157).
pantheistic representation of
Nilus is to be regarded as of
Sarapis, as it is clear that Sarapis
is here the chief divinity, taking
the attributes of others. (See
the spouse of Nilus.
spouse of Nilus was Euthenia.
That a frequent type, with many
interesting varieties, represents
Euthenia is proved by the inscription
of coins with this type (Pl.
xxii. 1162, 1303). That Euthenia
is the spouse of Nilus is proved
by the occurrence of the type
thus attributed with that of
1158). Euthenia, the Latin
Abundantia, and possibly the
later Ubertas, was thus removed
from the class of personifications to
that of divinities. No doubt the
line of demarcation between the two
classes was always so shadowy that
this could have happened in any
period of Greek mythology, but at
no time could so pure a personification
as Euthenia have become a goddess
fit to be associated on equal
terms with so important a goddess
as Demeter. This could only have
happened at a city like Alexandria,
where a compound mythology was
formed out of Greek and foreign
elements. Nilus, as already explained,
was originally without a consort, as
an inferior divinity of peculiar type
and character; but when raised to
the high rank of direct assimilation
with Sarapis, in the Alexandrian system,
he needed a consort, and his
female counterpart was found
in Euthenia, who was assimilated
to Isis the spouse of Sarapis.
(See p. lxxi.)
is represented, like Nilus, usually
recumbent, but sometimes seated.
She is, if seated, usually seated
on a base; but once, like Nilus,
she sits on rocks. (Pl.
xxii. 484). It is only in
groups that she appears standing,
again like her consort, though
this attitude is commoner in
of corn, or corn and uraeus.
The wreath on the head of Euthenia
is of corn. At first she seems
to wear this wreath only (Pl.
xxii. 28, 108); later the uraeus
appears between the ears of corn
rising above her forehead (Pl.
xxi. 796, xxii).
The reason of this addition, if
such it be, was no doubt to discriminate
Euthenia from Demeter or Persephone,
and to associate her with Isis.
dress of Euthenia is a chiton
and peplos, and in one remarkable
representation the chiton is
tied across the chest with the
Isiac knot, or "nodus Isiacus" of
held in hands.
usually holds in her right hand
ears of corn and poppy heads,
sometimes in her left a sceptre.
In one case she holds the sistrum
of Isis in her right (l.c.), in
another, the lotus in her left
left arm of Euthenia habitually
rests on a recumbent androsphinx,
of the Egyptian type, and therefore male.
This was the symbol of Har-em-khuti,
or Harmachis, the rising sun,
and may be introduced to associate
the abundance of Egypt with the
is one representation of Euthenia
which specially associates her
with Nilus. She is represented
seated on a base, holding ears
of corn and sceptre, her left
arm resting on the androsphinx,
while around her play the sixteen
infants representing the sixteen
Cubits of a good inundation.
xxii. 485; see p. lxxvi.).
This is the only instance which
I know in which the whole number
of the Cubits appears on a coin.
In another important type Euthenia
is seated on rocks, resting her
body and right arm on the androsphinx,
between a rock and a garlanded
base on which stands a large vase,
one-handled, and with a long spout
sloping downwards (Pl.
xxii. 484). This type, like
the similar type of Nilus, on which he
appears seated on rocks, sometimes
with the elephant beside him, sometimes
with the Nilometer near, is clearly
Euthenia at Elephantine, the cataract-island
of the Nilometer. (See p. lxxv.).
Euthenia and Demeter.
The groups of Euthenia are especially instructive.
Her importance as assimilated to
Isis explains the otherwise very
perplexing type in which Demeter
stands before the seated Euthenia.
xxii. 488). Isis was the most
important goddess in the Egyptian
pantheon, and was also in literature identified
with Demeter. But it was not possible
to carry this identification into
the region of the practical in
mythology or art, as Dionysos was
identified with Osiris the consort
of Isis. Consequently, Dionysos
and Demeter should have been a
corresponding pair to Osiris and
Isis, which on the Greek side was
not admissible. There is a second
type, in which Euthenia and Demeter
both appear. They stand, facing
one another, each holding in her
inner hand ears of corn, while
Euthenia has a sceptre in the other,
Demeter a long torch (487,
Euthenia rising from river.
There is a most interesting type
of Nilus and Euthenia, that which
represents Nilus and his consort,
as half-length figures, rising
from the waters of the river. Nilus
is turned to the left, crowned
with the lotus-wreath, his himation
flowing over his left shoulder,
in his left hand a papyrus reed.
Euthenia is turned three quarters
towards him; on her head is the
uraeus between ears of corn, the
front of her wreath; her mantle
is tied across the chest with the
so-called Isiac knot, leaving the
breasts bare, and she holds the
sistrum in her raised r. hand.
xxi. 796.) This coin, which
is of the reign of Hadrian, seems to
be unquestionably a reminiscence of
The Byzantine historian, Theophylact
Simocatta, himself of Egyptian
descent, writing of a time at which
he appears to have been resident at
Alexandria (Hist. viii.
13), the close of the reign of
Mauricius Tiberius, relates an
extraordinary story of an apparition
of Nilus and his consort, which
illustrates this type. He says
that Menas, then Eparch of Egypt,
being engaged on some official
journey in the delta, came at early dawn
to the bank of the river. There
he saw arise from the depths of the
stream a man of amazing size, his
face like that of a giant, fierce
in glance, his hair yellow-brown
turning grey, his cheeks like those of
an athlete, the muscles of the
loins as a sailor's, strong in
chest, the back heroic, the arms
mighty He appeared above the water,
as far as the loins. At the third
hour of the day there arose from
the water a female animal, described as
a beautiful woman, showing herself as
far as the male animal previously
described. They were seen by the
Eparch and his cohort until sunset,
when they disappeared below the
It is quite evident that the description
of the male animal may have been
suggested by a marine mammal, such
as those which were captured in Arab
times in the northernmost part
of the Delta. For this reason I
have given the description almost
in full. His female companion is,
on the other hand, a creature of fancy.
It is probable that the story reached
Theophylact as that of an appearance
of Nilus, λογος δε εκεινον αυτον πεφυκεαι τον Νειλον,
with his consort, and he drew the
description in his rhetorical manner
from such an original as the coin
of Hadrian, which has given rise
to this discussion. The coin shows
that such a picture was once at
Alexandria, agreeing closely with
the description of the historian.
It is evident that he inclined
to the popular idea that Nilus
had appeared, but did not wish
to commit himself to such a pagan
notion, το μεν ουν Νειλωον ζωον εκεινο, ειπειν γαρ ανθρωπον ουπω τεθαρρηκα,
and thus contented himself with a
description after a well-known picture.
It might be objected that the pictures
of the temples and other public
buildings of Alexandria, so far
as they were mythological, must
have perished at the time of the attack
on the temple of Sarapis, were
it not for the curious story of
how the statues of the Tychaion slid
down from their bases and announced
to a certain calligrapher the death
of the Emperor Nauricius. This
story told by the same writer shows
that the works of art, even when
religious, were sometimes left undisturbed.*
crowned by Euthenia, and other
In the other groups of Nilus and
Euthenia full figures of both are
seen. The most significant is that
in which Nilus seated is crowned
by Euthenia, Nilus crowned by Plenty
xxi. 1160). In another type
Euthenia walks behind Nilus, with
her right arm raised as if having just
crowned him (477);
in a third she presents ears of
corn to Nilus seated (1158).
between Tiberis and Nilus.
A curious subject, quite isolated
in the Alexandrian series, is that
which presents a Homonoia or Concordia
type, not between cities, or rather
peoples, as usual, but between
rivers, the Tiber and the Nile.
It occurs on a bronze of Antoninus
Pius. The inscription is ΤΙΒΕΡΙC
(in ex.) ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ,
the type Tiberis and Nilus facing
one another and clasping right
hands. Tiberis holds a branch in
his right hand; Nilus holds ears
of corn, as if presenting them
to Tiberis (cf. the attitude of
Alexandria, touching the Emperor's
hand and holding ears of corn, Pl.
xxvii. 669): on the right arm
of Nilus is one of the little Cubits,
and another is at his feet, and
in his left hand he holds the cornucopiae
There are two types which appear to
represent Phtha, the Egyptian Hephaistos.
In the one, which is of Greek style,
he is represented clad in chiton and
himation, holding sceptre and tongs
xxiii 636), in the other, as
a mummy, covered with the netting of
beads usual in the early Roman
age, holding an Egyptian sceptre
varied in form (637,
638). In both types he wears a
close-fitting Egyptian cap surmounted by
a disk, and this seems to show
that the same divinity is intended.
Two representations of cities are
seen on the Alexandrian coins,
those of Roma and Alexandria. Roma
is generally of the Amazonian type,
with the right breast bare, usual
on Roman coins. (Pl.
xxiii.) She cannot always be
discriminated on Roman coins from
Virtus, and therefore some representations
here called Roma may be of Virtus,
Kratesis (?) or Arete (?) A deviation
from general usage is seen in the
type of Roma wearing a cuirass (xxiii.
162, 211, 2620). Her seated
figure cannot always be distinguished
from that of Athena in the case
of the later coins, in which neither
the aegis of Athena nor the Amazonian
dress of Roma can be clearly seen.
Here the rule has been to carry
on the sequence of types, and not
to change an attribution because
the representation has become obscure.
There are various interesting types
of Alexandria, showing that while
no doubt there were many statues
of the city there, no one was predominantly
famous which became typical, unlike
the case of Antioch on the Orontes.
Type I, wearing
The first type of Alexandria in
the chronological order of occurrence
is that wearing the elephant's
skin on her head, clad in short
chiton with diplois peplos and endromides,
holding ears of corn and vexillum
xxiv. 998, 1687), or vexillum
xxvii. 868), or wreath and
This type is clearly connected with
the founder Alexander, through his
characteristic headdress in Alexandrian art.
It is not easy to account for the
vexillum. Perhaps under the earlier
Emperors Alexandria was a cavalry
II. Τυχη πολεως,
Tyche of the City.
The second type is the Tyche of
the city, Τυχη πολεως,
with turreted headdress, talaric
chiton with diplois and peplos,
holding rudder and small figure
of Isis Pharia, which surmounted
the Pharos (Pl.
xxiv.1000, cf. xvi., xxix.).
This type is varied in the headdress,
which in later coins presents the
towers rising from a close-fitting
cap with brim (1684,
1989, 2033, 2082), sometimes
adorned with a wreath (1532).
between two ports.
The third type represents Alexandria
standing between two crouching
or recumbent figures, two ports.
She is clad in a talaric chiton
with peplos over her lower limbs.
In one representation she holds
ears of corn and cornucopiae (p.
95, no. 808), in the other, ears
of corn and rudder (Pl.
xxiv. 1173). As she does not
uniformly hold the rudder, she
cannot in both cases be the Tyche
of the city. In front of her and
behind her is a galley approaching, that
in front under sail. On either
side, beneath the galleys, is a
recumbent or crouching figure:
that behind is recumbent and in
every respect like Nilus, crowned
with lotus and wearing himation
over lower limbs, except that in
his right hand he holds a rudder;
the other is crouching, and is a
female figure looking back, without
any special attributes. It would
be true to Egyptian ideas to represent
a lake by a Nilotic figure (see
p. lxx. n. *), and to Greek ideas
to represent a port by a nymph.
port, and port of Lake Mareotis.
The city had a double port on the
sea face, divided by the Heptastadium
into the Greater Port and the Eunostos.
On the land side was the Lake Mareotis, which,
with its docks, formed an inland
port. Clearly, the distinctly Nilotic
figure with the wreath of lotus
can only be this lake or its freshwater
port, while the nymph, which seems
without such characteristics, may well
be the double port to seaward.