Coins of Roman Egypt
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Nome Coinage
 
Arabia
Hadrian
2544

A.D. 126/127

Æ obol (4.84 gm).
Dattari 6205, pl. xxxv. Milne —. BMC 2. Cologne 3380.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΑΡΑΒΙΑ, female figure standing three quarters left, head right, holding bust of Harpocrates (?) and thyrsus, date L—ΙΑ to right.
Note: This Lower Egyptian nome was anciently called Supt-akhom, denoting a special form of the god Horus as god of the east. The principal female deity of the nome was Sekhet, the lion-headed war goddess. It has been argued that the female personage depicted on the coins is a hellenized version of Sekhet.
 
Arsinoites
Hadrian
2545
 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.09 gm).
Dattari 6210. Milne 1229. BMC 72. Cologne 3381-382.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΑΡCΙ, Head of Pharaoh right, wearing uraeus, date LΙΑ to r.
Note: Located in the Faiyûm, this nome was called by the Egyptians To-se, "the land of the lake," or Mu-ur, "the great lake," both names referring to the celebrated Lake Meris. Arsinoites did not receive an independent administration until quite late, having originally been a dependency of the twenty-first nome.
 
2546
A.D. 126/127
Æ dichalkon (2.08 gm).
Dattari 6212, pl. xxxv. Milne —. BMC 74. Cologne 3383-3384.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right, with draped left shoulder.
Rev: ΑΡC, crocodile right, disc on head, date LΙΑ in exergue.
Note: The capital city of the Arsinoite nome was Nuter-Ha-Sebek or Crocodilopolis, after its chief deity Sebek, the crocodile-headed god. Sebek was in fact a form of Horus assimilated to Ra.
 
Busirites
Antoninus Pius
2547  A.D. 144/145
Æ drachm (25.51 gm).
Dattari 6224, pl xxxvi. Milne —. BMC —. Cologne —.
Obv: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev: ΒΟ—ΥCΙ—ΡΙΤ, Isis of Busiris standing three quarters right, holding ram and sceptre, date L—Η across lower field.
Note: Busiris, capital of this lower Egyptian nome, was reputedly the place where Isis buried her brother Osiris and thus an important place of pilgrimage, whose festivals of mourning for the death of the god were noted for their wild lamentations. The Egyptian name of the town was Pa-Osiri neb tatu, "home of Osiris, lord of Tatu.
 
Coptites
Hadrian
2548  A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.58 gm.)
Dattari 6231, pl. xxxv. Milne Supplement 1237f. BMC 95. Cologne 3403.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΚΟ—ΠΤ,Geb or Kronos standing three quarters left, wearing horned disc, holding dear (or antelope) and flail, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: The Coptite nome in Upper Egypt took its name from the city Coptos (the Egyptian Kebt). Its chief god was Khem, an ithyphallic form of Horus who was assimilated by the Greeks to Pan. According to Le Rouge and Lenormant, it is Khem who is represented by the small figure on this coin; the identification as Kronos was first made by Tôchon. Aelian x.23 reports that deer were venerated in the Coptite nome.
 
Cynopolites
Hadrian
2549  A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.12 gm.)
Dattari 6235, pl. xxxv. Milne Supplement 1237g. BMC —. Cologne 3405-3406v (position of date).
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΚΥΝΟΠ, Anubis standing three quarters right, head left, olding seated jackal, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: Another Upper Egyptian nome, Cynopolites was administered from a capital named Suten-ha or, popularly, Sa-ka. Its Greek name Cynopolis was probably inspired by a Coptic form. Anubis was the principal god of the nome, and he is depicted here with his usual sacred animal, the jackal.
 
Diospolis Magna
Hadrian
2550 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.15 gm.)
Dattari 6239, pl. xxxv. Milne Addenda 1220v (rev. leg.). BMC 98. Cologne 3388.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΔΙΟ—ΡΟΛΙ—Μ, Helios, radiate on horseback left, holding uraeus, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: The greater Diopolite nome corresponds to the Egyptian Uas, around the venerable city of Thebes in Upper Egypt. It was the center of the cult of Ammon-Ra, who in Hellenistic times was assimilated to Zeus as Zeus Ammon. The types of this nome coinage reflect the god's solar aspect.
 
Diospolis Parva
Hadrian
2551 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (4.26 gm)
Dattari 6242, pl. xxxv. Milne —. BMC —. Cologne 3390.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΔΙΟΠ—Κ, Zeus Ammon, wearing horned disc, standing three quarters right, holding sceptre and ram, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: The letter Κ in the legend stands for ΚΑΤΩ, indicating a location in Lower Egypt. Like Diospolis Magna, Diospolis Parva was a center of the cult of Ammon. His sacred animal was the ram.
 
Heliopolites
Hadrian
2552 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (4.89 gm)
Dattari 6246v (holds flail, rev. leg.). Milne —. BMC 13. Cologne 3392-3392v (flail).
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΗΛΙ—Ο—ΠΟΛ, Helios, radiate standing three quarters left, holding Mnevis bull and sceptre, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: The capital of this Lower Egyptian nome was An, popularly called Pa-ra, "the city of the sun," whence the Greek name Heliopolis. Its principal deity was of course the sun, who was worshipped in several forms including that of the black Mnevis bull, an incarnation of Ra.
 
Heracleopolites
Hadrian
2553 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (4.51 gm)
Dattari 6259v (LΙΑ). Milne —. BMC —. Langlois 54v (LΙΑ). Tôchon 49.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΗΡΑ—Κ, Heracles standing three quarters left, holding griffin seated on wheel, club and lion skin, date ΙΑ to right.
Note: The capital of this Upper Egyptian nome was Khenen-su, a city important enough to figure in ancient Assyrian inscriptions and in the Bible. Geographical texts indicate that its chief deity was Har-sefi, the ram-headed Horus the warrior, who the Greeks identified with Heracles because of his bellicose character. On the nome coinage his distinguishing attribute is a griffin, Akhakh, which for the Egyptians symbolized military valor.
 
Hermopolites
Hadrian
2554 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.79 gm)
Dattari 6269, pl. xxxvi. Milne 1227. BMC 84. Cologne 3399.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΕΡΜΟ, Bust of Thoth right, wearing Atef crown, ibis right in front, date LΙΑ above ibis.
Note: The Hermopolite nome in Upper Egypt corresponded to the ancient Egyptian Un, its capital city being Sesun. The name Sesun, meaning "eight," was believed to refer to the eight gods or personified virtues which assisted toth, whose cult was centered at Sesun. Thoth was the god of scribes and of the moon, assimilated by the Greeks to Hermes, whence the Greek name of the nome. The ibis which appears in the field of this coin was the hieroglyph for the name of Thoth.
 
2555 A.D. 126/127
Æ dichalkon (2.38 gm) Dattari 6270, pl. xxxv. Milne —. BMC 85v (LΑΙ). Cologne 3400.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right with draped left shoulder.
Rev: ΕΡΜΟ, Cynocephalus seated right, disc on head, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: The cynocephalus was a special attribute of Thoth, symbolizing both celestial phenemena and the sciences.
 
Leontopolites
Antoninus Pius
2556 A.D. 144/145
Æ drachm (22.37 gm) Dattari 6285v (rev. leg.). Milne 1829. BMC 16v (rev. leg.). Cologne 3433-3434v (rev. leg.).
Obv: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev: ΛΕΟΝΤΟ—Π—ΟΛΙ—Τ, Horus of Leontopolis standing three quarters right, holding sceptre and lion, date L—Η across lower field.
Note: Leontopolites was a division of the ancient Lower Egyptian nome Khent-abet, taking its name from one of the legendary battles of Horus in which he assumed the form of a human-headed lion.
 
Lybia
Hadrian
2557 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.34 gm)
Dattari —. Milne —, but cf. Supplement 1840b (drachm of A. Pius). BMC — (Lybia not represented). Cologne 3409.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΛΙΒ—ΥΗ, Sarapis (or Ammon), wearing modius, standing facing, head left, extending right hand (possibly holding patera) and holding ram in left, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: Libya and Mareotes were originally parts of the ancient "western nome" of Lower Egypt, known for its cult of Apis.
 
Lycopolites
Hadrian
2558 A.D. 126/127
Æ dichalkon (2.06 gm) Dattari 6290, pl. xxxv (ΑΥΚΟ in error). Milne —. BMC 105 (ΑΥΚΟ in error). Cologne —.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΛΥΚΟ, jackal walking right, date L—ΙΑ across field.
Note: The Lycopolite nome in Upper Egypt corresponded to the ancient Egyptian Atef-khent. Its chief city was Saut, called Lycopolis by the Greeks. Anubis, in his aspect as guide of souls, was the chief god of this nome, and the jackal was his sacred animal.
 
Mendesius
Antoninus Pius
2559 A.D. 144/145
Æ drachm (21.01 gm) Dattari 6307, pl. xxxvi. Milne—. BMC 30. Cologne —.
Obv: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev: ΜΕΝΔ—ΗCΙ—ΟC, Mendes standing three quarters right, holding sceptre and ram, date L—Η across lower field.
Note: The capital of this Lower Egyptian nome was Pa-bi-neb-tat, an important city mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions. The principal deity was a ram headed god who represented the living spirit of Ra, the sun. The Egyptians called the ram Mendes, inspiring the Greek name for this city and its nome.
 
Menelaites
Antoninus Pius
2560 A.D. 144/145
Æ drachm (20.57 gm) Dattari 6315. Milne Supplement 1840c. BMC 35. Cologne 3435-3437.
Obv: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev: ΜΕΝΕ—ΛΑΕΙΤ, Harpocrates of Canopus three quarters left, with crocodile's tail, wearing skhent, raising right hand to lips and holding cornucopiae, date LΗ in exergue.
Note: The Menelaite nome lay east of Alexandria in Lower Egypt, the famous town of Canopus lying within its boundaries. Egyptian geographical texts indicate that its principal cults were those of Amon, the crocodile god Sebek, and Horus in his aspect as Har-pa-khruti or Horus the child. The crocodile tail suggests the assimilation of Harpocrates to Sebek, who was himself a form of Horus assimilated to Ra.
 
Oxyrhynchites
Hadrian
2561 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (4.29 gm) Dattari 6337v (rev. leg. break). Milne Supplement 1237pv (rev. leg. break). BMC 87. Cologne 3413.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΟΞ—ΥΡ, Athena standing three quarters left, holding Nike and bipennis, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: This Upper Egyptian nome was revered as the legendary site of the final battle of Horus against Seth. It was governed from a capital nemed Mert, and later from Pamat'a-t, called Oxyrhynchus by goddess Tefnu-t. The depiction of Athena on the coins of the nome suggests that Tefnu-t was assimilated to the Greek war goddess.
 
Hadrian
2562 A.D. 126/127  
Æ dichalkon (1.88 gm)
Dattari 6339v (rev. leg.). Milne 1247. BMC 89v (rounded blades). Cologne 3415.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right with draped left shoulder.
Rev: ΟΞΥΡ, bipennis, date LΙΑ to right.
 
Antoninus Pius
2563 A.D. 144/145
Æ drachm (23.06 gm)
Dattari 6340v (rev. leg.). Milne —. BMC 91v (rev. leg.). Cologne 3440-3441.
Obv: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev: ΟΞΥΡVΝ—Χ—ΕΙΤ, Athena standing facing, head right, holding bipennis and Nike, date L—Η across lower field.
 
Pharbaetites
Hadrian
2564 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (4.58 gm)
Dattari 6349v (rev. leg. break). Milne —. BMC —. Cologne —. Langlois 66v (rev. leg. break).
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right.
Rev: ΦΑΡΒΑ—Ι, armored fgure standing facing, head left, wearing skhent, holding spear and uncertain animal (bull?), date LΙΑ to right.
Note: This Lower Egyptian nome was apparently the site of one of Horus' victories over Seth; thus the coins probably depict Horus the warrior. The bull which is his attribute, and which appears alone on coins of small module, is an element in the hieroglyphs for the nome and for its capital, Hebes or Heseb.
 
Saites
Trajan
2565 A.D. 109/110
Æ drachm (20.47 gm)
Dattari —, but cf. 6367 (Athena left, holding owl, altar at feet). Milne —. BMC 53v (Athena left, rev. leg.). Cologne —.
Obv: Laureate head of Trajan right, wearing aegis.
Rev: CΑΙΤΗC, Athena standing three quarters right, resting on spear and shield, date L—ΙΓ across field.
Note: Sa or Saïs, capital of the Saïte nome in Lower Egypt, was the center of the cult of the warrior goddess Neith, who was worshipped by the Lybians as well as the Egyptians. The Greeks assimilated Neith to Athena, the Romans to Minerva. It is the Greco-Roman goddess, with her familiar animal the owl, who is depicted on the nome coins. None of the attributes of the Egyptian Neith find a place in this type.
 
Thinites
Hadrian
2566 A.D. 126/127
Æ obol (5.18 gm). Dattari 6397. Milne —. BMC —. Cologne 3430.
Obv: Laureate head of Hadrian right with draped left shoulder.
Rev: ΘΙ—ΝΙ, radiate figure, wearing horned disc, standing facing, head left, holding Elpis, date LΙΑ to right.
Note: The Upper Egyptian nome Thinites was named for its administrative capital Teni, called Thinis or This by the Greeks, despite the fact that the nome contained the important holy city of Abydus, site of the tomb of Osiris. Similarly, the chief god of the nome, as named in Egyptian geographical lists, was the god of Teni, a solar deity named Anhur, who may be represented by the radiate figure on this coin.
 
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